By Shelley Burns
Originally published in ASCP's Skin Deep, August/September 2006.
Shea butter comes from the nut of the shea tree (pronounced shay) found in the tropics of Africa, primarily West Africa. It offers many benefits as a topical moisturizer for skin and hair, and improves other skin problems and appearance.
As well as providing relief from minor dermatological conditions like eczema, lesser burns, and acne, shea butter can be used as a natural sunscreen and for stretch-mark prevention during pregnancy. Other benefits include the evening out of skin tone, reducing blemishes, and restoring skin elasticity.
Shea butter easily penetrates the skin, allowing skin to breathe without clogging pores. It contains high concentrations of linoleic acid, which provide skin protection at a cellular level, as well as vitamins A, E, and F, which protect against premature wrinkles. Vitamin F in shea butter also soothes rough, dry, or chapped skin.
Healing though it may be, shea butter undergoes a rigorous path in its journey from overseas to the faces and bodies of your clients. The fruit from the shea tree is cultivated, cracked, grilled, pounded, and boiled. The shea butter is then scooped out of the nut and left to cool.
Properties of shea butter include unsaponifiables—substances that cannot decompose into acids, salts, or alcohol. For that reason, shea butter is extremely absorbable, even more so than soybean and avocado oils.
There are three types of shea butter extraction and just two of the three end products of these extractions should be used or recommended by estheticians. Unrefined shea butter in its pure form is yellow. Refined shea butter is processed but still contains many of its natural components. Either is fine to use. Highly refined shea butter may well have lost its healing properties and can include such solvents as hexane, which may cause nerve damage. It is pure white and should be avoided. Another note of caution: shea butter is not recommended for people with nut and latex allergies, and some experts also discourage its use by people with chocolate allergies.
Though it does not need refrigeration per se, your shea butter should be stored in a cool place. Should it happen to melt, place it in the refrigerator uncovered until it hardens. As it begins to cool, stir it to maintain its uniform texture and color, bringing the olein (liquid portion) into contact with the stearin (solid portion). Keep in mind shea butter will begin to lose its effectiveness after about two years, as natural ingredients start to break down.